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Good sources of information on how agrochemicals should be applied are often found on the agrochemical label.
You may still need to adjust your sprayer to the specific spraying conditions you choose for volume rate, driving speed, nozzles and spray pressure.
Specific application instructions for crop protection products are listed on the products label. You should always read and follow these label instructions. You may still need to adjust your sprayer to the specific spraying conditions you choose for volume rate, driving speed, nozzles and spray pressure.
Often volume rate and driving speed are decided first – then the nozzle choice is limited to the possibilities within the accepted pressure range (normally 20 to 70 psi for conventional nozzles). This is easily found on the HARDI calibration disc or you can calculate the required nozzle flow and find the nozzles in a nozzle table.
Example: We want to apply 15 GPA at 7 mph
Measure 300 feet. It may be useful to have some ‘permanent’ markers that are located in a convenient place (in a field or field like conditions). From the table in the tractor you find the gear to achieve the speed you want at a given rpm.
Example of speed calculation:
For easy selection of nozzles and pressure, use the HARDI calibration disk (order no. 285721-US or 285802-Metric).
Volume rate 15 GPA Pressure 40 PSI
Driving speed 8 MPH Nozzle flow 0.40 GPM
Nozzle ISO F-04-110
For many years, 4 to 6 mph [and 3 to 5 mph in dense crops where canopy penetration is needed] have in general, been considered good practice. It is an option that is still of value for today.
Increasingly, it is recognised that the slower the boom moves then the less the turbulence is around it, and hence, less drift and less disturbance to the quality of spray distribution.
Some important considerations needs to be made before choosing a higher tractor gear:
|Side effects from higher speed:
||How to deal with the side effects:|
|1) More turbulence / more wind drift
||Bigger droplets or TWIN air assistance|
|2) More boom movement||Often the boom should be readjusted for optimum performance at a higher drivning speed|
Spray pressure influences spraying effectiveness in crops by 3 ways:
Pressures recommended for field spraying with standard and lowdrift nozzles
Pressures recommended for field spraying with INJET nozzles
The droplet spectrum
All agricultural nozzles produce a range of drop sizes. This is a useful feature as the crops to be sprayed always present a 3-dimestional target that have contrasting leaf surfaces and angles. Hence, in a crop canopy, for example, finer droplets are likely to be deposited in the top and larger droplets lower down.
Drop sizes are measured in micron. 1 micron = 1/1,000,000 metre.
To describe the median droplet sizes produced from a specific nozzle, the term VMD is used.
VMD = Volume Median Diameter
VMD is the mid-way drop size that is reached when the accumulated volume of smaller drops accounts for 50% of the sprayed liquid leaving the nozzle; half the volume is atomised into droplets smaller – and the other half of the volume is larger - than the VMD.
Wind drift has in the past been regraded as being mostly caused by droplets below 150 micron in diameter.
Be prepared to optimize spraying technique “on the go”
Rather compromise on drop size than timing.
In many applications - from fungicide spraying in potatoes to dicotyledonous stage, broad leaf weed herbicide treatments -timing is very critical. Here a delay may often prompt the need for a higher dose or an increased number of applications.
The potential efficacy loss due to an increased droplet size - that offers less drift risk - will be less dramatic, as long as a good liquid distribution is maintained. Hence it is a good idea to have a set of low drift nozzles or INJET nozzles ready on the nozzle holders in case wind speed increases – and is a lot more convenient and safer than returning with a half full spray tank. Because there can be up to 10% difference in flow for new and worn nozzles both sets of nozzles should be calibrated - even if both sets are ISO nozzles.