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Spraying technique

Good sources of information on how agrochemicals should be applied are often found on the agrochemical label.

You may still need to adjust your sprayer to the specific spraying conditions you choose for volume rate, driving speed, nozzles and spray pressure. 

Calibration for field crop sprayers

Specific application instructions for crop protection products are listed on the products label. You should always read and follow these label instructions. You may still need to adjust your sprayer to the specific spraying conditions you choose for volume rate, driving speed, nozzles and spray pressure.


Often volume rate and driving speed are decided first – then the nozzle choice is limited to the possibilities within the accepted pressure range (normally 20 to 70 psi for conventional nozzles). This is easily found on the HARDI calibration disc or you can calculate the required nozzle flow and find the nozzles in a nozzle table.


Example: We want to apply 15 GPA at 7 mph

  1. Check driving speed:

    /upload/pictures/usa/spray technique/100ft_tractor_distance.gif

    • Drive the measured distance (with a ½ filled tank) and measure the time.
    • Calculate the speed:

     

Measure 300 feet. It may be useful to have some ‘permanent’ markers that are located in a convenient place (in a field or field like conditions). From the table in the tractor you find the gear to achieve the speed you want at a given rpm.

Example of speed calculation:

Sec/300 ft 17 18 20 23 25 29 34 41 51
mph 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4


  1. Select nozzle

For easy selection of nozzles and pressure, use the HARDI calibration disk (order no. 285721-US or 285802-Metric).

Example

Volume rate 15 GPA Pressure 40 PSI

Driving speed 8 MPH Nozzle flow 0.40 GPM

Nozzle ISO F-04-110


  1.  

    ISO_nozzle_wheel.jpg

    .




  2. Check liquid system

    • Mount the chosen nozzles on the boom.
    • Turn on the sprayer and spray at minimum 80 psi while you check the liquid system for any leakages.
    • Check the agitation

  3. Check nozzle output
    • Set the pressure.
    • Adjust the pressure equalizing valves
    • Measure the nozzle output for one minute.
    • Repeat this process - measuring at least 2 nozzles for every boom section.
    • Calculate average nozzle output

 

 

Protecting the environment when spraying

For many years, 4 to 6 mph [and 3 to 5 mph in dense crops where canopy penetration is needed] have in general, been considered good practice. It is an option that is still of value for today.

Increasingly, it is recognised that the slower the boom moves then the less the turbulence is around it, and hence, less drift and less disturbance to the quality of spray distribution.

Some important considerations needs to be made before choosing a higher tractor gear:

Side effects from higher speed: 
How to deal with the side effects:
1) More turbulence / more wind drift 
Bigger droplets or  TWIN air assistance
2) More boom movement Often the boom should be readjusted for optimum performance at a higher drivning speed 
 

Spray pressure

Spray pressure influences spraying effectiveness in crops by 3 ways: 

  • Pressure influences the spray angle: the higher the pressure the wider the spray angle. If the pressure is too low (below 20 psi. for flat fans and 40 psi. for INJET) the spray angle is not wide enough to ensure full overlap on the boom and optimum liquid distribution.

  • The higher the pressure, the smaller the droplets and the more they are likely to be deposited within the upper canopy of the foliage. These smaller drops are also more sensitive to wind movement. 
  • The higher the pressure, then the more: ◦surrounding air is entrained that helps penetration of larger droplets within the canopy ◦air turbulence which may increase under leaf deposit of smaller droplets especially when using low output conventional nozzles 


Pressures recommended for field spraying with standard and lowdrift nozzles 

  • Pressures of 20 to 60 psi for normal flat fan and lowdrift nozzles can be recommended for most applications.
  • Only for well developed dense canopies where penetration is needed - such as spraying weeds that are concealed at the base of a vigorous crop - the pressure could be increased to 5 bar with larger nozzles (03, 04 and bigger).


Pressures recommended for field spraying with INJET nozzles

  • INJET nozzles require a minimum of 40 psi. to have a full spray angle but can be used up to 120 psi.
 

Droplet sizes

The droplet spectrum
All agricultural nozzles produce a range of drop sizes. This is a useful feature as the crops to be sprayed always present a 3-dimestional target that have contrasting leaf surfaces and angles. Hence, in a crop canopy, for example, finer droplets are likely to be deposited in the top and larger droplets lower down.

Drop sizes are measured in micron. 1 micron = 1/1,000,000 metre. 

To describe the median droplet sizes produced from a specific nozzle, the term VMD is used.

VMD = Volume Median Diameter 
VMD is the mid-way drop size that is reached when the accumulated volume of smaller drops accounts for 50% of the sprayed liquid leaving the nozzle; half the volume is atomised into droplets smaller – and the other half of the volume is larger - than the VMD. 

Wind drift has in the past been regraded as being mostly caused by droplets below 150 micron in diameter. 

 

Optimize spray technique


Be prepared to optimize spraying technique “on the go” 


Rather compromise on drop size than timing.
 
In many applications - from fungicide spraying in potatoes to dicotyledonous stage, broad leaf weed herbicide treatments -timing is very critical. Here a delay may often prompt the need for a higher dose or an increased number of applications. 

The potential efficacy loss due to an increased droplet size - that offers less drift risk - will be less dramatic, as long as a good liquid distribution is maintained. Hence it is a good idea to have a set of low drift nozzles or INJET nozzles ready on the nozzle holders in case wind speed increases – and is a lot more convenient and safer than returning with a half full spray tank. Because there can be up to 10% difference in flow for new and worn nozzles both sets of nozzles should be calibrated - even if both sets are ISO nozzles.